The abstract must be a concise yet comprehensive reflection of your work and should be written after finishing your thesis.

Formal criteria:

  • Grammar tense: Past tense for methods and results, present tense for conclusions and background
  • Describe your work objective and avoid evaluative language
  • Should not contain mathematical equations, tabular material, abbreviations, footnotes, or references
  • Contains just text, no citations.
  • Written as one paragraph and no more than 3.000 characters (inclusive of spaces)
  • Should include meaningful keywords or phrases, to support indexing in search engines and to make it findable.

Components of the abstract:

  • Motivation (Why did you undertake this study or project?)
  • Research methods (What did you do and how?)
  • Results (What did you find?)
  • Conclusions (What do your findings mean?)

Furthermore you should pay attention to simple and understandable language, make sure your abstract reads well and check the text thoroughly for spelling and grammar.

This website uses cookies. There are two types of cookies: The first type supports the basic functionality of our website. The second allows us to improve our content for you by saving and analyzing pseudonymised user data. Since this second type is technically not required to run the website, you can withdraw your consent to those cookies at any time. For more information please visit our pages on data protection.


These cookies are needed for a smooth operation of our website.


For statistical reasons, we use the platform Matomo to analyse the user flow with the help of website users‘ pseudonymised data. This allows us to optimize website content.

Name Purpose Lifetime Type Provider
_pk_id Used to store a few details about the user such as the unique visitor ID. 13 months HTML Matomo
_pk_ref Used to store the attribution information, the referrer initially used to visit the website. 6 months HTML Matomo
_pk_ses Short lived cookie used to temporarily store data for the visit. 30 minutes HTML Matomo