Guide to scientific work

1. Structure of the work

1. Structure of the work

The formal elements of a scientific paper include the following components.

Table 1: 

1Empty cover  X
2Front cover XX
3Table of contentsXX
4Lists of tables and figures (individual lists of three or more tables/figures, otherwise a common "list of tables and figures")XX
5Other directories (list of abbreviations, symbols, formulas) if necessaryXX
7Bibliography according to APA (2002,2010)2 3XX
8If necessary, annexes (with the list of annexes before the annexes if applicable)XX
9Declaration on the independent constitution of the workXX
10Blank sheet X

Source: in Appendix to Theisen, 2008, p. 181 (SP=seminar paper, TP=thesis paper)

Samples for the title page can be downloaded here. With the declaration of the independent constitution of the work, the individual authors of the presented work signify that they have provided the work by themselves and have observed the copyright. There are alternative formulations for individual or group work. In the case of group work, each person must make a statement. Models for both versions of this declaration can be found in Annexes 4 and 5, and additional background and detailed information can be provided in Annexes 4 and 5. It is important that the work itself must be legible and understandable without the appendices. If empirical data is collected and evaluated in the course of the scientific work, the survey instruments should be presented in the appendix, so that the survey instruments are not already illustrated exhaustively in the text. In particular, interview transcripts hould be presented in the appendix. Overviews that go beyond the results reports can also be illustrated in the appendix for interested readers.

!If the volume of these records exceeds 30 pages, they should no longer be printed in the appendix but should be stored exclusively on a CD-ROM to be added to the work. Raw data, as well as the syntax or, do file of the evaluation must always be burned on CD-ROM and added to the work. This applies to qualitative and quantitative work!
2. Formatting the work

2. Formatting the work

The work must be formatted as shown in Table 2.

Table 2: Formatting of scientific papers

TextUniform font for the whole work: Arial, 11 points, 1.5 lines, single-sided
AlignmentJustification (suitable word separation for optimal use of line width)
Page marginsLeft 4 cm, right 2 cm, up/down 1.5 cm
CitiationAPA (2002, 2010)
Text in footnotes, notes on tables and figuresArial, 9 points, 1-line
StructureNumerical order;Use formatting (insertion, capitalization, bold and italics) exclusively to improve clarity.
Page numberingThe blank 1st page and the cover page do not contain any numbering and are not counted;Directories before the text (content, illustration, table, symbol indexes, etc.): consecutively Roman and numbered independently of the text;Text and subsequent directories: Consecutive Arabic; independently numbered from the directories in front of the text, starting with page "1".
TablesConsecutive Arabic numbering, indication of the title above each (table heading), notes (incl. source) underneath the table;Font size for table titles 11 points, table contents 10 points, notes to table 9 points.
IllustrationsConsecutive Arabic numbering, indication of title and annotations (incl. source) underneath in each case (figure caption); font size for illustration titles 11 points, textual contents 10 points, annotations to figure 9 points.
3. Scope of work

3. Scope of work

The most important guideline for the scope of the work is the pages without illustrations. Table 3 provides a clear overview of the information on the scope of the report.

Table 3: Scope of scientific work

Type of the workPages (text pages without illustrations)2
Seminar paper (4 CP module)12 per participant (+/- 10%)
Seminar paper (6 CP module)18 per participant (+/- 10%)
Student research theses30 per participant (+/- 10%)
Bachelor thesis30-40 per participant3
Master/Diploma thesis 50-60 per participant3
4. Literature in the scientific work

4. Literature in the scientific work

The selection of literature on specific topics is the basis for the scientific treatment of a question. The scientific examination of a question entails, among other things, dealing with the basic scientific literature on this subject area and establishing one's own perspective on the basis of this literature.

Sources which do not comply with scientific standards or which are described as "grey literature" are not quotable (unpublished, not publicly accessible sources). Non-quoted sources include brochures, Wikipedia, general interest magazines (Hörzu, Men's Health, etc.) as well as seminar papers and unpublished theses. Quoted sources are texts that are open to the public (free or free of charge) and are addressed to scientists and written by scientists. These are specialist publications in scientific journals. They can usually recognize scientific journals by the fact that they have a peer review procedure before publication. In addition, they usually have an impact factor (SSCI Impact Factor).

Examples of scientific journals for the subject area of business administration can be found in the:

If you are unsure about the suitability of a journal, ask your supervisor. ATTENTION: Avoid quoting from textbooks; try to find and quote the original studies on which the textbooks are based! This also applies to the specification of primary sources in journal publications. Use the primary sources to quote.

The use of English language sources is essential.

5. Citation

5. Citation

!The adoption of other authors' thoughts without clearly identifying the origin of these thoughts is considered plagiarism (cf. e. g. APA, 2010, pp. 15-16; Lehmann, 2008).

Plagiarism is treated in accordance with the examination regulations irrespective of the type of work.

The basic guidelines for citation and evidence are described in the Publication Manual of the APA (2002,2010), which is available at the chair. Generally speaking, direct quotations should be the exception to indirect quotations. This applies all the more to secondary quotations. The latter should be avoided by thoroughly researching the original sources. Secondary quotations are only permissible if the original source is not available, can be ordered and viewed despite all efforts (see Theisen, 2008, p. 154). For example, if Author X quotes a sentence from an article not available from Author Y, the following information is required:

  • Short documentation in the text: One cause of this phenomenon could also be' ABC' (Authors Y, 1908, p. 4; quoted from Author X, 2002, p. 85).
  • The complete bibliographic data of author X must be listed in the bibliography.

For direct quotations, any change in relation to the original must be specifically marked in accordance with APA (2010, pp. 172-173) (see Chap. 2.6). Irrespective of this, any form of literal reproduction, analogous reference or the use of foreign ideas must be indicated in the text by means of a citation stating the source at an appropriate place. This citation in the text must clearly lead to the corresponding source in the bibliography. The citation is placed in parentheses and only lists the surname of the authors with the year of publication and, if available, the page numbers: (<Authors>, <Year>, p. <Page>). The alternative inclusion of the source name in the text itself is permitted and sometimes makes sense, whereby only the components of the short document that are not yet specified in the record are listed in parentheses. The specification of page numbers or chapter numbers is always necessary if the statement that is being documented comes from a certain part of the source. This is the case, for example, when you are specifying statistical data. In general, sources should be specified as concretely as possible. The following examples illustrate when which degree of accuracy makes sense.

  • The American Psychological Association (2010, Chapter 3) examines the scientific and unambiguous style of writing.
  • The American Psychological Association (2010) comprehensively presents the standards of scientific work.
  • The American Psychological Association (2010, pp. 15-16) concretizes the term "plagiarism".
6. Guidelines for citation of references in the text

6. Guidelines for citation of references in the text

A scientific method of working is also expressed in the correct way of citing the source in the text. Any statement made in the literature that has been taken over directly or analogously must be indicated by the original authors. Statements that can be supported by more than one source should also be substantiated in a correspondingly veried manner. It is insufficient to indicate the source only at the end of a paragraph that has been appropriately adopted.

!Readers must be informed of the origin of the original statement after each statement.

The more extensive the literature studies were, the more sources can be listed within a coherent paragraph. In addition to the formally correct references, the quality criterion here is that for each individual statement in the work it must be unquestionably clear as to who the author of this statement is, whereby the unambiguous reference document also leads unequivocally and undoubtedly to the corresponding reference in the bibliography.

In the case of current topics, it is possible that several consecutive sentences can only be assigned to one source. In this case, it is recommended that you formulate an introductory sentence with the citation. Example: The evaluations of the Federal Statistical Office (2006, p. xx-xx) relevant to this topic are summarized below. Or: In the following, the evaluations of the Federal Statistical Office (2006, p. xx-xx) are referred to primarily.

When quoting and specifying short documents, you must distinguish between the use of round and square brackets. An overview of the use of round and square brackets can be found in Table 4.

Table 4: Overview of the use of round and square parentheses

(…)Citation of the bibliographic informationNote that words have been omitted from the passage quoted above.
[<word>]Marking of additions of own words in the original text (e. g. for grammatical adaptation of the sentence)
[!]Identification of errors in the original text, e. g. (in annex to Kornmeier, 2007, p. 123):"By means of the regresion analysis[!] the[!] there is no correlation between the variables studied "(Emperor 2005, p. 162).

Exceptions to this rule are texts in old spelling. Individual words can be adapted here without marking the current grammar and spelling, as long as this does not change the content, meaning or form of the quote. Other special features of literal and analogous quotations are briefly described below.

Literal quotes

  • Short quotes are enclosed in the text and marked with double quotation marks. The source with a page number in parentheses follows immediately after the next punctuation mark.
  • Longer quotes (more than 40 words) are transferred to a new slightly indented section without quotation marks. Example:
    • Kammer (1997) described this as follows: <Quotation with more than 40 words> (p. <Number>).
  • Special features (see bold marks):
    • "For college students, rewards often come in the form of grades" (Miller, 2013, p. 655). In other words, the following peculiarities arise: Miller (2008) noted that "for college students (...) rewards often come in the form of grades" (p.655).
    • The researchers Greenfield and Savage-Rumbaugh (1990) showed "..." (p. 556). By contrast, if the short document is given in brackets:"..." (Greenfield & Savage-Rumbaugh, 1990, p. 556).
    • Quotes in quotation marks for quotations within the direct quote: " (...) that the items in the scale do not measure the same thing, and 'at the very least, one should not treat this scale as unidimensional' (...) ” (Miller, 2013, p. 658).

Analogous quotations 

In the case of analogous quotations, the content to which reference is made is reproduced in the own words. The references in brackets with page numbers follow directly after the assumed train of thought.

In any case, the following applies:

  • If the authors are part of the text, only the year and the page numbers are shown in brackets. If authors and dates are already mentioned in the text, only the page numbers are shown in brackets.
  • If a publication has three to five authors, all surnames are mentioned in the first citation. All following references to the identical source only refer to the first given surname with the addition "et al."
    • Exception: If there are several publications of the same year, which would have to be shortened to the same form, as many authors are listed as are necessary for differentiation.
    • Example: (Terrace, Petitto, Sanders, & Bever, 1979, p. 57). For the second use: (Terrace et al., 1979, p. 80).
  • If a work has six authors or more, only the first surname with the suffix "et al." as well as the year and page number must be listed. If identical references to non-identical sources are created as a result, the previous rule applies.
  • If societies, institutions, governmental authorities appear as authors, these names are usually written out in the text. Some institutions can be advertised during the first citation and shortened in all subsequent ones. The abbreviation must provide sufficient information to unequivocally find the corresponding entry in the bibliography.
  • If a knowledge is derived from two or more works by different authors, they are separated by a semicolon and sorted alphabetically in the parentheses themselves.
    • Example: (Sebeok & Umiker-Sebeok, 1979, p. 23; Terrace, 1979, p. 80).
  • If several works by the same authors are quoted, the year numbers, beginning with the oldest, separated by commas, are specified.
    • Example: (Terrace, 1979,1982).
  • To avoid confusion, authors who have the same surname are distinguished by the initials of their first names. Example: The work of E. Smith (1989) showed that... (p. 25). The study by A. Smith (1789) showed that.... (p. 7).
7. Guidelines for references in the bibliography

7. Guidelines for references in the bibliography

The detailed information on the sources must be listed in the bibliography. The bibliography in the work contains all used, alphabetically ordered sources without classification into publication types. Every source listed in the bibliography must also be found in the text and vice versa. The following table provides references to sources in the bibliography, which can be found in the APA Manual (2002,2010).

Table 5: Formal references to the bibliography

Journal articles (periodicals)
Basic formAuthor, A. A. (year). Title of the article. Journal title, volume (No.), <p. xx-xx>.
Example  (German)Abele, A. E. (2003). Geschlecht, geschlechtsbezogenes Selbstkonzept und Berufserfolg: Befunde aus einer prospektiven Längsschnittstudie mit Hochschulabsolventinnen und -absolventen. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 34(3), 161-172.
Example (English)Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.
NoteThe issue number must be specified if each issue has its own, discontinued page numbering, i. e. begins with page 1.
Book/Monograph (Non Periodic Works)
Basic formAuthor, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of the book (Editions). Place: Publisher.
Example (German)Picot, A., Reichwald, R., & Wigand, R. (1998). Die grenzenlose Unternehmung: Information, Organisation und Management (3. Aufl.). Wiesbaden: Gabler.
Example (English)Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall.
Collective work/publisher's work (non-periodic works)
Basic formAuthor, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Ed.) (year). Title of the book (Editions). Place: Publisher.
Example (German)Ordelheide, D., Rudolph, B., & Büsselmann, E. (Hrsg.) (1991). Ökonomische Theorie und Betriebswirtschaftslehre. Stuttgart: Poeschel.
Example (English)Baum, J. R., Frese, M., & Baron, R. (Eds.). (2007). The psychology of entrepreneurship. Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum.
NoteThe edition number is only given after the second edition.
Collective work contribution/book chapter (Non-periodic plants)
Basic formAuthor, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of the chapter. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (editor), Title of the book (p. xx-xx). Place: Publisher.
Example (German)Picot, A. (1991). Ökonomische Theorien der Organisation – Ein Überblick über neuere Ansätze und deren betriebswirtschaftliches Anwendungspotential. In D. Ordelheide, B. Rudolph, & E. Büsselmann (Hrsg.), Ökonomische Theorie und Betriebswirtschaftslehre (S. 143-170). Stuttgart: Poeschel.
Example (English)Audia, P. G., & Rider, C. I. (2007). Entrepreneurs as organizational products revisited. In J. R. Baum, M. Frese & R. Baron (Eds.), The psychology of entrepreneurship (S. 113 - 130). Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Working papers/ Research reports/ Discussion papers/ reports (non-periodic works)
Basic formAutorIn, A.A., & AutorIn, B.B. (Jahr, Monat). Titel des Beitrags (Reihentitel und -nummer). Ort: Verlag.
Example (German)Astor, M., Koch, C., Klose, G., Reimann, F., Rochold, S., & Stemann, M.-C. (2006). Zu alt, um Neues zu lernen? Chancen und Grenzen des gemeinsamen Lernens von älteren und jüngeren Mitarbeitern (QUEM-Materialien No. 77). Berlin: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Betriebliche Weiterbildungsforschung e.V.
Example (German)Briedis, K., & Minks, K.-H. (2007, April). Generation Praktikum - Mythos oder Massenphänomen? (HIS-Projektbericht). Hannover: HIS.
Example (English)Caliendo, M., Fossen, F., & Kritikos, A. (2008, June). The impact of risk attitudes on entrepreneurial survival (IZA Discussion Paper Series No. 3525). Bonn: Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit (IZA). Retrieved from
NoteThe series title and number are given in accordance with the specifications in the working paper itself. Research reports are generally presented in the same way. For exceptions and enhancements, see APA (2010).
Online publication with DOI
Basic formAutorIn, A. A., AutorIn, B. B., & AutorIn, C. C. (Jahr). Titel des Artikels. Titel der Zeitschrift, Vol.(Nr.), xx-xx. doi: XXX
ExampleOlson, J. M., & Zanna, M. P. (1993). Attitudes and attitude change. Annual Review of Psychology, 44(1), 117-154. doi: 10.1146/
NoteWhenever you use a publication that has a DOI (digital object identification number), specify it. This also applies to publications that you use as paper or book (not online).
NoteAs soon as you can specify the DOI, you do not need to enter a URL.
Online journal without DOI
Basic formAuthor, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of the article. Title of the magazine, Vol.(Nr.), p.XX-XX. Access at http:// (without end of sentence - ".")
Example (German)Mayring, P. (2007). Designs in qualitativ orientierter Forschung. Journal für Psychologie, 15(2), 10 p. Zugriff unter
Example (English)Davis, C. K. (2000). Programmer ethics and professionalism in strategic systems development: A case study. Online journal of ethics, 3(1), 1-12. Retrieved from
NoteOnline journals that are based on print media and have neither content nor formal changes compared to the print version are cited like journal articles (see above), supplemented by the addition "Electronic version" in square brackets.
Example Allen, S. D., Link, A. N., & Rosenbaum, D. T. (2007). Entrepreneurship and Human Capital: Evidence of Patenting Activity from the Academic Sector [Electronic version]. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 31(6), 937-951.
NoteIf the article has a DOI, only specify the DOI (no URL) (see above).
NoteThe URL should, as far as possible, lead directly to the source. If a URL leads to a database on which the document in question can be found (instead of the document itself), this should be indicated by the note "Retrieved from" instead of "Access on".
NoteIf the document is part of an extensive web page (e. g. chair pages of a university), specifying the institution providing the document helps to identify it (e. g.: University of Potsdam, Institute of Psychology, website: ...).
NoteOnline sources should not be used as a reference if the permanent availability is not given due to missing long-term archiving. Additives such as "no longer available" should be avoided, and corresponding sources should not be used as a reference, since verifiability and traceability are not given.
Publications of institutions
Basic formName of the institution (year). Title of the publication. Place: Publisher.
Example Statistisches Bundesamt (2005). Wirtschaft und Statistik – Juni 2005. Wiesbaden: Autor.
Note If the publisher is identical to the authoring institution,"author" is indicated as the publisher instead of the repetition (see example).

Source: APA, 2010, p. 193

In general, the following also applies:

  • Different works by the same authors are sorted by year of publication; older works first.
  • Different works of the same authors within one year are ordered by the addition "a","b" etc.
    • Example: Kennedy, C. (2000a). ... and Kennedy, C. (2000b). …
  • For the bibliography, only up to six author names are given. If there are more than six authors, the first six names separated by commas (without &) are listed and then supplemented by "et al.
    • Example: Light, G., Kukuk, M., Janz, N., Kuhlmann, S., Münt, G., Hipp, C., et al. (1995). Results of the German service-sector innovation survey. Mannheim: ZEW, Karlsruhe: FhG-ISI.
  • In the bibliography, all numbers are listed as Arabic numbers (1,2,...), even if the source contains Roman numbers (I, II,...). Exception: Roman numbers used in titles are copied.
8. Tables and figures

8. Tables and figures

The text must be supplemented with meaningful and understandable tables and figures. Scanning or "copying and pasting" of this from the literature is inadequate. Furthermore, the optically prepared representations are to be included in the text, i. e. commenting without repeating the content itself.

The origin of graphs and tables, as well as components of figures and tables, must be documented. Correct proof of the origin of the thoughts conveyed in figures and tables is, among other things, based on the guidelines in Table 6.

Table 6: Documentation in tables and figures

Origin of presentation contentCitation
An image or table is copied from an original source (i. e. it looks identical, even if it has been "created" by yourself)Source: Author (s), year, fig. -/ tab. designation in the original, p.xx

Quelle: Ajzen, 1991, Abb. 1, S. 182.
An illustration or table is changed compared to the original.Source: In annex to author (s), year, p.


Source: In annex to  Ajzen, 1991, p. 187.
An illustration or table is based on data/facts/explanations of other authors, without the graphic/tabular representation itself having been adopted.Source: own illustration, data taken from author (s), year, p.xx

Source: own illustration, data taken from Ajzen, 1991, p. 187.
Own presentation on the basis of own considerations, without reference to other authors and without basing the findings/data of individual other publicationsNo source information required

Formal requirements for figures and tables can be found in the literature (e. g. APA 2010, Ch. 5). In addition to the requirements of Table 2, the following must be taken into account in the formal design of figures and tables in general.

  • Colour and other accentuations are economical and uniform throughout the work.
  • Illustrations and tables must be designed in a way that their content can be quickly grasped. The design should support, not complicate, the mental comprehension.
  • Illustrations and tables must be understandable even without the text itself. This means that all information relevant to understanding must be stated in the presentations themselves (possibly by annotations/notes).
  • The quality of illustrations and tables must be taken into account. A very high quality is achieved with the programs GIMP and YED (both free of charge).
9. Submission of work

9. Submission of work

General Information 

The work is to be submitted in triplicate at the latest by the agreed date (day and time) to the Student Service. Delayed submission or non-compliance with the deadline for submitting seminar, study, project and final theses lead to failure to pass the examination without exception and in accordance with the framework regulations for Bachelor, Master, and Diploma degree programmes. Extension modalities for the processing times can be found in the examination regulations. Furthermore, all scientific papers are submitted in digital form. 

Digital submission of final theses (Bachelor's, Masters and Diploma theses)

The submission is done by using a data storage medium at the student service for final theses.  

Digital submission of seminar papers 

In case of seminar papers, the submission is made exclusively at the chair. The digital version can be uploaded to the respective event at moodle via the "Submit" button. In the case of group work, these are automatically combined so that one group member can submit to the entire group. A maximum of three files of 256 megabytes each can be uploaded per student or per group.

Content of the digital submission

The following contents in common formats must be included in the digital submission:

  • The complete work in the formats *. doc and *. pdf. All illustrations, tables and other representations and calculation bases in the respective processing format (not *. pdf); naming of the representations according to the description in the work itself (e. g. Figure 1 is called "Fig_1").
  • If empirical data have been collected and processed in the work, all raw data for verifiability and comprehension purposes (e. g. SPSS result outputs; Excel tables; secondary data sets) must be submitted.

Since only three files in total can be uploaded, individual files have to be compressed into the *. zip or *. rar format. For example, all documents in digital form are then combined into one file. 

!Let your work be proofread by third parties. Revise your work in terms of consistency, linguistic conciseness and conceptual accuracy. Pay attention to punctuation, spelling, grammar and sentence structure.

Legal regulations

By submitting your work to the chair, you agree not to use it without the permission of the chair staff. Depending on the quality of your work, this may include, among other things, the strict rejection of the publication worthiness, the consent to it or the consent to it under certain conditions. Depending on the type of scientific work, specific special regulations can be contractually agreed upon.

10. Content requirements

10.1 Formulation and notes on content

The basic rules of formulation can be read in various instructions for scientific work (e. g. APA, 2010; Craswell & Poore, 2012; Kornmeier, 2007,2008; Töpfer, 2009) and are not listed here in detail. However, the following key points shall be noted:

  • Please note that the readership of your work is scientific, but not exclusivly an expert audience, however.
  • Consistent use of time must be ensured (cf. e. g. APA, 2010, pp. 65-66).
  • The treatises in the work should have a good structure. First of all, you, the authors, have to recognize and understand the guiding question of your work. All the contents of your work will then be used to answer this key question, which is the "central theme".
  • The sentences are to be formulated in a concise and redundancy-free manner. Embellishments and unscientific stylistic devices are to be avoided.
  • Relevant terms are to be distinguished from each other in terms of content.
  • Write scientifically precise. Terms should be used clearly and consistently. In addition, clear terms shall be used and vague, ambiguous terms and generalizing wording shall be avoided.
  • It is important to familiarize oneself with the state of knowledge in the respective subject area: Which questions do the researchers deal with in this respect? What is the level of knowledge, on what is this level of knowledge based and is this uniformly recognized or do contradictory perspectives coexist? Are the findings purely theoretical or are they based on empirical studies? How extensive is empirical research in this area? Where are gaps in knowledge, what are open questions and first possible answers to them?
  • To answer these and other questions, scientific literature should be used, which in turn corresponds to the criteria of good scientific practice. In order to assess this, criteria such as the citation frequency of articles (in turn scientific publications)4, the publication in recognised, selective (e. g. by means of so-called double-blind review procedures) scientific journals5 and finally the own reflection on the quality of the articles (transparent, verifiable, verifiable, replicable, unambiguous presentation taking into account the most important theoretical principles and empirical findings) can be used.
  • The selected literature must be used with a critical distance.
  • Own judgments are to be based on theories, models and empirical findings. Avoid factual claims without evidence and undifferentiated statements.
!If you use the plural, some grammatical pitfalls are eliminated. 

10.2 Notes on the presentation

Seminar papers and dissertations are generally associated with the obligation to present the findings orally. Corresponding information on presentation techniques is available in specialist literature (e. g. Lehmann, 2008, Chapter 11). As a result, key aspects are only briefly summarized: 

  • The chair's presentation master is to be used (see "Downloads").
  • Each lecture is accompanied by a title, outline and conclusion.
  • The presentation should only cover selected areas of the work.
  • The auditorium (at least the chair staff members present) is to be given a handout. Black and white printing of the presentation slides with three foils per A4 page (adjustable in the print menu) is sufficient.
  • The presentation shall be held free and directed to the audience.
  • It is appreciated to give presentations that promote discussion.
  • The slides are structured, easy to read and do not require long text passages.
  • The prescribed time frame must be strictly respected.
11. Bibliography

11. Bibliography

APA (Ed.). (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association (APA).

APA (Ed.). (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association (APA).

Craswell, G., & Poore, M. (2012). Writing for academic success (2nd ed.). London: Sage.

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychologie. (2007). Richtlinien zur Manuskriptgestaltung (3., überarb. u. erweit. Aufl.). Göttingen: Hogrefe.

Field, A., & Hole, G. (2011). How to design and report experiments. London, UK: Sage.

Kornmeier, M. (2007). Wissenschaftstheorie und wissenschaftliches Arbeiten. Eine Einführung für Wirtschaftswissenschaftler. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag.

Kornmeier, M. (2008). Wissenschaftlich schreiben leicht gemacht: Für Bachelor, Master und Dissertation. Bern: Haupt/ UTB.

Lehmann, G. (2008). Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten zielwirksam verfassen und präsentieren (Mit Layout-Vorschlägen auf CD-ROM) (2., überarb. Aufl.). Renningen: Expert.

Theisen, M. R. (2008). Wissenschaftliches Arbeiten: Technik - Methodik - Form (14. Aufl.). München: Vahlen.

Töpfer, A. (2009). Erfolgreich Forschen: Ein Leitfaden für Bachelor-, Master-Studierende und Doktoranden. Berlin; Heidelberg: Springer.



1 ST: Applies to seminar theses and student research theses; FT: Applies to final theses.

2 Includes the complete work, including cover page, but excluding annex and bibliography.

3 Deviations are possible by arrangement.

4 A first quick indicator for this is the "quoted by" indication in google scholar, although the year of publication has to be considered. 

5 An indicator of this is the placement of journals in so-called journal rankings such as the VHB ranking (see, SCImago Journal Ranking (see or


Appendix 1 - Literature recommendations

Subject areaLiterature recommendations
Fundamentals of scientific workAmerican Psychological Association (Ed.). (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association (APA).
 Bortz, J., & Döring, N. (2006). Forschungsmethoden und Evaluation für Human- und Sozialwissenschaftler (4. Aufl.). Heidelberg: Springer.
Helpful for writing final thesesBalzert, H., Schäfer, C., Schröder, M., & Kern, U. (2008). Wissenschaftliches Arbeiten: Wissenschaft, Quellen, Artefakte, Organisation, Präsentation. Herdecke; Witten: W3L-Verlag.
 Craswell, G., & Poore, M. (2012). Writing for academic success (2nd ed.). London: Sage.
 Esselborn-Krumbiegel, H.(2002). Von der Idee zum Text. Eine Anleitung zum wissenschaftlichen Schreiben (3. Aufl.). Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh.
 Heister, W., & Weßler-Poßberg, D. (2007). Studieren mit Erfolg: Wissenschaftliches Arbeiten für Wirtschaftswissenschaftler. Stuttgart: Schäffer-Poeschel.
 Kornmeier, M. (2008). Wissenschaftlich schreiben leicht gemacht: für Bachelor, Master und Dissertation. Bern: Haupt.
 Töpfer, A. (2009). Erfolgreich Forschen: Ein Leitfaden für Bachelor-, Master-Studierende und Doktoranden. Berlin: Springer.
Management of research projects (also suitable for theses in economics)Thomas, D. R., & Hodges, I. D. (2010). Designing and managing your research project: Core knowledge for social and health researchers. London: Sage.
Theoretical workWhetten, D. A. (1989). What constitutes a theoretical contribution? The Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 490-495. Available at
Empirical workBortz, J., & Döring, N. (2006). Forschungsmethoden und Evaluation für Human- und Sozialwissenschaftler (4. Aufl.). Heidelberg: Springer.
 Field, A., & Hole, G. (2011). How to design and report experiments. London: Sage.
 Laatz, W. (1993). Empirische Methoden: Ein Lehrbuch für Sozialwissenschaftler. Thun; Frankfurt am Main: Deutsch.
 Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-903. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879
Statistical basics of empirical workBortz, J. (1999). Statistik für Sozialwissenschaftler (5., vollständig überarb. und aktualisierte Aufl.). Berlin: Springer.
Analysis of empirical data (especially with SPSS)Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.). London: Sage.
 Wright, D. B. (2003). Making friends with your data: Improving how statistics are conducted and reported. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 73(1), 123-136.
Questionnaire studiesJacob, R., Heinz, A., Décieux, P., & Eirmbter, W. H. (2011). Umfrage: Einführung in die Methoden der Umfrageforschung. München: Oldenbourg.
 Kallus, K. W. (2010). Erstellung von Fragebogen. Wien: facultas. (ISBN: 978-3-8252-3277-1) (Tatsächlich fundierte Fragebogenentwicklung steht hier im Mittelpunkt.)
 Raab-Steiner, E. (2008). Der Fragebogen: Von der Forschungsidee zur SPSS-Auswertung. Wien: facultas. (ISBN: 978-3-8252-8406-0)
Qualitative research methodsLamnek, S. (1995). Qualitative Sozialforschung: Band 2: Methoden und Techniken (3. korrigierte Aufl.). Weinheim: Beltz.
Content and document analysisLaatz, W. (1993). Empirische Methoden: Ein Lehrbuch für Sozialwissenschaftler (Kap. 5, S. 207-260). Thun; Frankfurt am Main: Deutsch.

Appendix 2 - Sample title page for seminar papers and student research theses

Appendix 3 - Sample title page for final theses

[Translate to Englisch:] ... Bild folgt

Appendix 4 - Sample declaration (individual work) on the independent composition of the work

I hereby declare that I have produced this work independently and without using any other means than the specified aids. Any thoughts taken directly or indirectly from external sources (including electronic sources) are, without exception, marked as such.

This work, or parts of it, has not been submitted to an audit authority in the same or similar form, either domestically or abroad and has not been published.


Cottbus, <Date of submission DD.MM.YYYY>

Source: In Appendix to Theisen (2008, pp. 208-209)

Appendix 5 - Sample declaration (team work) on the independent composition of the work

I hereby declare that I have made my contribution to the present group work (chapter <XX>) independently and without using any other means other than the indicated aids. The same applies to the author's contributions (chapters <XX>) which are jointly written by the authors named on the title page of the paper. The thoughts taken over directly or indirectly from foreign sources are without exception marked as such.

This work, or parts of it, has not been submitted to an audit authority in the same or similar form, either domestically or abroad and has not been published. I agree that the work will be checked for contained plagiarism with the help of a plagiarism detection service.


Cottbus, <Submission date DD.MM.YYYY>

Source: In Appendix to Theisen (2008, S. 209)