## Topics for Bachelor and Master Thesis Projects

You can pursue your Bachelor and/or Masther thesis project in the areas of Control Systems and Network Control Technology at our group. We appreciate your interest and can offer you the following current topics:

Design of observers for synchro-generators (M.Sc.)
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Observers of systems are used in several practical problems. For example, consider the theoretical state controllers with feedback: In the classical assumption, they are able to measure all system states needed to compute the corresponding control signal, so the implementation depends on them. In practice, however, this is not the case, as only a few states can be measured. This is due, for example, to the high cost of the necessary sensors or the lack of commercial sensors that can measure this variable. Therefore, an observer is needed that can implement the feedback state controllers.

Another application of observers is the determination of faults in physical systems, where the observer simulates the expected behavior of the system. The objective of this project is to design an observer for synchronous generators of a nonlinear electromechanical system. The observer is simulated and analysed using Simulink/Matlab. Since generators are ubiquitous in electrical power systems, their study is essential in industry.
Comparison of local controllers for nonlinear electrical and mechanical system (B.Sc.)
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In general, non-linearity terms are widely used in mathematical models. Although some control theories deal with them, there is no extensive theory for coltroller design as in linear control theory. Therefore, one strategy to solve this problem is neglecting the presence of these terms so that the system is locally linearised by Taylor's series around the desired point, which allows designing the local controllers by using all well-known linear control theories. This thesis aims to compare two or three well-known linear controllers applied to electrical and mechanical systems. The controllers are going to be analysed and compared using Simulink/Matlab. Among the properties that will be considered are: the steady-state error, the velocity and region convergence, and the energy used by the controllers.  Dr. José Ángel Mercado-Uribe
Energy saving in multi-agent system in optimal coverage tasks (M.Sc.)
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UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicle) are increasingly being used in more and more areas. In surveillance or search activities they can be used to cover a specific area of a given terrain. There are some algorithms that allow to determine the optimal areas for each UAV, depending on the number of UAVs and the greater or lesser importance of the different points of the terrain. However, the way in which the UAVs must cover such areas based on energy autonomy has not yet been studied in depth. Within this project the different alternatives in which the energy autonomy is taken into account should be tested and analysed.Dr. Rolando Cortés Martínez
Leader-follower control of UAV under constrained scenarios (B.Sc.)
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In the leader-follower scheme a group of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicle) must follow the leader in different formation schemes. However, if the environment in which they operate is constrained by walls and other obstacles, the followers must reconfigure the formation. The objective of this work is to analyse the various techniques to achieve this goal without compromising the following control task.Dr. Rolando Cortés Martínez
Modelling an islanded DC microgrid under a grid-aware energy management strategy (M. Sc.)
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With the growing awareness about environmental concerns, the use of renewable energy sources (RESs) as distributed generation units (DGUs) has significantly increased in recent years. The concept of microgrid (MG) represents a popular solution for integrating large shares of DGUs, energy storage systems (ESSs) and loads into a single controllable entity that can operate in a grid-connected or islanded mode with respect to a larger transmission network. DGUs are interfaced with the MG via power converters, which can adopt two different operation modes: namely grid-forming (voltage control) or grid-following (current control).

In the islanded case, a correct management of the MG energy resources is of high relevance due to the lack of a large power reserve provided by the transmission network. In this regard, employing a flexible and grid-aware control strategy for the MG represents an attractive solution. That is, a supervisor algorithm monitors relevant variables within the MG, e.g., power generated by RESs, state-of-charge of ESSs, voltage at the common bus, etc. in order to estimate the MG performance. Then, the performance is assessed by a set of logical rules which enable the DGUs to modify their operation mode in order to maintain a desired MG operation. The goal of the present project is to derive the dynamic model of an islanded DC MG composed of DGUs, ESSs and loads that operates under a grid-aware energy management strategy. Particular attention must be assigned to the grid-aware conditions which ensure the existence of equilibrium point(s).

M. Sc. Ismael Jaramillo-Cajica
Development of a graphical user interface for the power-hardware-in-the-loop testbed facility at BTU (B.Sc.)
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With the goal of reducing the greenhouse emissions and fossil fuel consumption in the area of energy systems, the use of renewable energy sources (RESs) has remarkably increased in recent times. The physical properties of RES-based distributed generation units (DGUs) largely differ from those of conventional synchronous generators. Therefore, large scale power systems demand novel control techniques and operation strategies in order to ensure a stable operation. Moreover, the substantial changes in the system properties makes simulation-based analysis of DGU-based power systems become insufficient and thus, experimental validation through testbed facilities is required.

Motivated by this, the Chair of Control Systems and Network Control Technology at BTU has designed and mounted a power-hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) testbed laboratory for design, test and validation of control schemes in DGU-based power systems. As a key feature, the laboratory equipment is fully compatible with the Matlab/Simulink interface. In this regard, the goal of the present project is to design a graphical user interface (GUI) which enables the communication, display and control of the PHIL system through a Matlab/Simulink environment
M. Sc. Ismael Jaramillo-Cajica
Non-linear control for drone in response of collision avoidance inputs (M.Sc.)
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One of the biggest challenges in controlling a drone is avoiding collisions with other UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) and obstacles. Currently there are many different methods to define a new direction. Most commonly, nonlinear controllers are used to generate a new drone-input. However, depending of the controller, the behaviour of the perturbation which is generated for the new direction have different effects on the flight of the drone. The objective of this project is to analyse different nonlinear methods for controlling drones when they are faced with obstacles.M.Sc. Oscar Fabian Archila Cruz
UAV control for problem of delay data communication and imprecision in sensor measurements (B.Sc.)
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Currently the use of UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) is increasing in multiple applications. Thier use ranges from urban transport to agricultural activities. These new technologies introduce various challenges related to the capabilities of UAV technology.

In this case, we focus on the delay in data communication and the inaccuracy of sensor measurements. These problems can lead to path-planning-errors and collisions with another UAV depending on the application. The objective of this project is developing a method that decreases the control error related to the path planning and considering the inaccuracy of the current UAV-position and the delay in data transmission.
M.Sc. Oscar Fabian Archila Cruz
Versuchsstand: Mehrgrößen-Regelung (M.Sc.)
InhalteVerantw.
Für das Labor Regelungstechnik ist ein Beispielversuch zur Analyse und Synthese einer Mehrgrößen-Rege­lung zu entwickeln. Im Labor ist dazu ein Turmdrehkran-Modell vorhanden, dessen Bewegungen dreidimen­sional gesteuert werden können. Die Regelungsaufgabe könnte darin bestehen, mit einer Last jede mögliche Position im Bewegungsraum optimal anzufahren, im Sinne maximaler Geschwindigkeit der Bewegung bei minimaler Schwingungsneigung der Last.

Zunächst ist zu realen Kransteuerungen, dem typischen Verhalten und möglichen Regelstrategien zu recher­chieren. Die Ergebnisse sind in einem einführenden Kapitel zusammenzufassen.

Auf den vorhandenen Modellprozess sind geeignete Verfahren der Prozessanalyse und Modellierung anzu­wenden. Für Analysezwecke steht eine Signalerfassung über Personal-Computer in einer Matlab/Simu­link-Umgebung zur Verfügung.

Für die Regelung sind entsprechende Regelalgorithmen zu definieren, mit einem geeigneten Verfahren zu parametrieren und sowohl als Simulation, als auch am realen Versuchsstand zu testen. Dies sollte innerhalb der vorhandenen Matlab/Simulink-Umgebung erfolgen. Gegebenenfalls ist eigener Programmieraufwand notwendig. Bei erfolgreichem Test sind die einzelnen Schritte und Ergebnisse nachvollziehbar zu doku­men­tieren. Dies sollte den Hauptteil der Masterarbeit bilden.

In einem abschließenden Kapitel können Hinweise zur Einbindung in die Lehre und Vorschläge für Variationen der Versuchsdurchführung gegeben werden.

Anforderungen:
• Grundlegende Kenntnisse aus den Modulen Regelungstechnik 1 und 2,
• erweiterte Fähig­keiten im Umgang mit Matlab/Simulink
Angebot:
• Arbeitsplatz und Betreuung am Fachgebiet, Hard- und Software bereits vorhanden.

Dr.-Ing. Uwe Rau
InhalteVerantw.
Für das Labor Regelungstechnik ist ein Beispielversuch zur Analyse und Synthese einer Kaskadenregelung zu entwickeln.

Zunächst ist zu praktischen Anwendungen, dem typischen Verhalten und den Vorteilen von kaskadierten Regelkreisen zu recherchieren. Anhand der Ergebnisse ist aus den im Labor vorhandenen Modell- und realen Regelstrecken ein geeigneter Prozess zusammenzustellen bzw. zu wählen.

Für diesen Prozess soll eine Kaskadenregelung entworfen und getestet werden. Dazu sind geeignete Verfahren zur Prozessanalyse und Modellierung anzuwenden. Für Simulationszwecke steht eine Matlab/Simulink-Umgebung zur Verfügung. Die Ergebnisse sind am realen Versuchsstand zu überprüfen.

Zur Regelung sind notwendige Reglertypen auszuwählen und mit einem geeigneten Verfahren zu parametrieren. Vor dem Test am realen Versuchsstand ist das Regelkreisverhalten durch eine Simulation zu überprüfen. Als Regler können sowohl Software-, Modell- als auch reale industrielle Regler verwendet werden.

Nach erfolgreichem Test sind die einzelnen Schritte und Ergebnisse nachvollziehbar zu dokumentieren. Hinweise zur Einbindung in die Lehre und Vorschläge für Variationen der Versuchsdurchführung sollen gegeben werden.

Angebot: Arbeitsplatz und Betreuung am Fachgebiet, Hard- und Software bereits vorhanden, Arbeitsaufwand kann über ein Semester gestreckt werden.
Dr.-Ing. Uwe Rau
Versuchsstand: Regelung technischer Strecken (Durchfluss, Füllstand, Luftstrom) (B.Sc.)
InhalteVerantw.
Für das Labor Regelungstechnik ist ein Beispielversuch zur Analyse und Synthese der Regelung einer realen technischen Regelstrecke zu entwickeln.

Zunächst ist zu praktischen Anwendungen und dem typischen Verhalten der Regelstrecke zu recherchieren. Anhand der Ergebnisse ist aus den im Labor vorhandenen technischen Möglichkeiten ein geeigneter Prozess zusammenzustellen.

Für diesen Prozess soll eine Regelung entworfen und getestet werden. Dazu sind geeignete Verfahren zur Prozessanalyse und Modellierung anzuwenden. Für Simulationszwecke steht eine Matlab/Simulink-Umgebung zur Verfügung. Die Ergebnisse sind am realen Versuchsstand zu überprüfen.

Zur Regelung sind notwendige Reglertypen auszuwählen und mit einem geeigneten Verfahren zu parametrieren. Vor dem Test am realen Versuchsstand ist das Regelkreisverhalten durch eine Simulation zu überprüfen. Als Regler können sowohl Software-, Modell- als auch industrielle Regler verwendet werden.

Nach erfolgreichem Test sind die einzelnen Schritte und Ergebnisse nachvollziehbar zu dokumentieren. Hinweise zur Einbindung in die Lehre und Vorschläge für Variationen der Versuchsdurchführung sollen gegeben werden.

Angebot: Arbeitsplatz und Betreuung am Fachgebiet, Hard- und Software bereits vorhanden,
Arbeitsaufwand kann über ein Semester gestreckt werden.
Dr.-Ing. Uwe Rau
Analysis of the algorithm to control a HV transformer tap changer in an utility scale PV plant (B.Sc. / M.Sc.)
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The monitoring data of a transformer tap changer, which is controlled by the power plant controller of a PV plant, shall be analyzed in Matlab in order to identify and estimate potential revenue losses. The analysis can be used to implement an improved control algorithm for the tap changer, which is then simulated and validated.Dipl.-Ing. Simo Kauth
Electrical Power Control for Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems of an Aircraft (M.Sc.)
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In response to the urgent need to reduce CO2 emissions and address rising fuel costs, the aviation industry is rapidly embracing the electrification of aircraft. As part of this transition toward sustainable and efficient transportation, the integration of hybrid-electric propulsion systems stands out as a pivotal advancement. However, this shift poses a significant challenge in terms of systems and control, particularly in the effective management and safe operation of the onboard electrical power distribution network within the propulsion system. Tackling this challenge is crucial for the successful implementation of hybrid-electric technology in aviation, marking a key focus for research and innovation in the pursuit of greener and more economical air travel.

This master thesis project focuses on controlling the electrical power control of hybrid-electric propulsion systems, a critical aspect in the development of sustainable transportation. With the growing importance of electric vehicles and hybrid technology, efficient power management is key to improving overall system performance and reducing environmental impact. By delving into practical applications, advanced control algorithms, and emerging technologies, students involved in this project will gain valuable insights into the forefront of green transportation. Join us in addressing the challenges and opportunities in this field, contributing to a more sustainable and efficient future in hybrid-electric propulsion.
Wasif Haider Syed, M. Sc.
Observer design based on dissipative properties for nonlinear Hamiltonian systems. (M.Sc.)
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In control engineering, observers use available measurements and process models to obtain accurate estimates of a system's states. The main objective of this project is to design a novel observer for a class of nonlinear Hamiltonian systems, which are typically used to represent different physical phenomena and engineering processes. As a particular case study, the project considers the design of observers for electric power generation plants and loads modeled from a transmission system operator viewpoint.Oscar Texis-Loaiza
Implementation of linear and nonlinear observers for power systems. (B.Sc.)
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In control engineering, observers utilize available measurements and process models to obtain accurate estimates of a system's states. In the literature, there exist diverse methods for designing observers, with the most commonly employed methods being based on linear correction terms. While these linear observers are effective, they have limitations when dealing with uncertainties and nonlinearities. Alternatively, nonlinear observers are capable of managing nonlinear systems and unknown inputs. However, their implementation poses a significant challenge in practice. The main objective of this thesis is to implement both linear and nonlinear observers for power systems in our power-hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) testbed laboratory.Oscar Texis-Loaiza

The project work and thesis report can be done either in German or English.

For further information please get in touch with the indicated contact person. If you have an own topic proposal, we are happy to discuss this with you.